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Wrintig Reaction of Semi-Stabilised Ylides with Benzaldehydes Studies on the Effect of ortho Position


            In organic chemistry, Wittig reaction has attracted both immense interest and controversies among synthetic chemists. It continues to generate contentious issues especially where lithium salt-free reactions are involved. Much of these controversies arise from the original Wittig proposal that the reaction progresses via oxaphosphetane, an idea that was vehemently opposed almost immediately [1]. The topic has received several excellent reviews concerning reaction mechanisms [2, 3].  Mutual consensus among researchers is that all Wittig reactions share a common experimental effect for all phosphonium-based ylide reactions. Similarly, selectivity is consistent for cis-oxaphosphetane together with its derivative products such aserythro-β-hydroxyphosphonium and Z-alkene salt in reactions where aldehydes bearing a heteroatom on the β-position as a substituent are involved. This effect usually operates for both aliphatic aldehydes and benzaldehydes, while in the absence of a substituent heteroatom they do not operate [4].

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US Coast Guards

To start with, military forces are crucial in any particular country or state. Normally, these forces are divided into three categories; the army, air force, and the navy. The navy in particular is responsible for the coastline security. Since the United States is the strongest state, it is expected to have the most equipped military forces. With this regard, this analysis offers a deeper explanation of the US navy with an inclusion of their functions, limitations, capabilities, and mission statement.

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International affairs/relations

 How did Sgt. Harris view his role as a soldier?

SergeantHarris survived an attack afteran attack on him and his fellow marines from the sides. Other members in his unit did not survive. The result ofthe wound that he acquired makes him wish he were back in Afghanistan where life seemed easier. In Afghanistan, he was in charge. At home, he is entirely dependent. Harris further explains that he joined the army to fight the enemy. He however came home damaged. The sergeant is in extreme pain and distress. It is even harder for him to integrate into the society because most people do not even understand what he has gone through. It is clear that the sergeant enjoyed his work as an army person. However, he does not seem happy with the person that he has become.

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Racial Discrimination Challenge

In the United States, a higher number of individuals are imprisoned than any other nation in the world. Studies reveal that vast racial disparities are prevalent throughout United States’ prisons. African-Americans are incarcerated six times more than white people, and they represent approximately 60 percent of prison population in the country. There is an overabundance of typecasts and mistaken standpoints that surround African-Americans. These stereotypes disseminate the certainty that African-Americans have higher chances of committing crimes, dealing with drugs, and being in possession of guns.[1] This paper will discuss the issue of racial discrimination challenge in American judicial perspectives.

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Communication& IT technology and Globalization


Authors and scholars have quite varying views regarding globalization. To some of the authors, it refers to the emergence of institutions whose choices and decisions shape the policies of other states and nations. For other authors it means the impact of the worldwide economic processes that include production, capital flow, consumption, monetary interdependence, and trade. Some authors take globalization as the emergence neoliberalism as a policy disclosure. To some scholars, globalization refers to the rise of new global media, cultural, and technological forms of communication that shape the relations of interaction and identity across and within a local cultural setting.[1]

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Failure to Launch

The sequence of milestones during the life course is monumental as it depicts a pre-defined pattern of movement towards a predestined stage in life. Today’s children do not seem to follow the contemporary uniform pattern on their way to maturity. Rather, they accelerate towards their maturity in an uneven, individualized pace. Some of today’s kids never really experience the five milestones of the life course, regardless of whether the choice is theirs or forced by circumstances. Others achieve the milestones in a very disorderly process; there are those who decide to seek professional advancement before entering into relationships, others decide to bear children at a young age and then get into engagements later. Furthermore, there are those who leave their schooling to attend to work and then resume to their studies later in life. In current environments, the life period between the 20s has been transformed into a distinct segment of the life course on its own. To some extent, a debate has emerged as to whether this stage should be recognized as an important stage in the life course. Scholars concur that the stages in human life course tend to follow a pattern that corresponds to human neurological developments. However, the need to appreciate the age of 20s as a fundamental stage in human development has been necessitated by both economic and cultural dynamics.

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Addressing Overt and Covert Manifestations of Employee Dissatisfaction at Work

Employee productivity, commitment and retention issues are becoming the most critical workplace management challenges. These challenges have been exacerbated by corporate restructuring efforts, employee loyalty concerns and extreme competition for crucial talents. For many organizations, unprecedented employee departures can have adverse effects on the execution of business objectives and this may eventually lead to irreversible decline in productivity. This phenomenon is especially real in light of current economic uncertainties as well as the resulting corporate downsizings that followloss of critical employees (Caplan and Teese, 1997. The manifestations of employee dissatisfaction at thework place can be eitherconvert or overt. Covert manifestations are sometimes hard to notice since they are much concealed and mostly involve individual employees. On the other hand, overt manifestations are rather open andthey usually involve collaborations among several or all employees within thework place.

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