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22 November 2014 In Academic 0 comment

At the end of your undergraduate years, you are expected to write a thesis paper before you acquire your degree. Some fields require that you write in the APA format. The APA (American Psychological Association) format is notable in social sciences, psychology, and education.

First, you need to research information for your thesis. Go to the library to look up books and articles relevant to your subject. Make notes of important concepts found in the book or article. Paraphrase the notes on note cards or on a separate sheet of paper. Be sure to write down the source where you received the information, in order to put on your reference page.

When you have completely finished researching for your thesis, begin writing for your rough draft. The paper you should use for your rough draft is 8.5” by 11” with 1” margins on all sides. The paper needs to be double spaced. Type in 12-point Times New Roman or Courier (serif typeface). Figure labels are typed in 12-point Arial, Helvetica, or any sans serif typeface.

How to write your APA Thesis paper at ease

Number each page, beginning with the title page. Figures and artwork are not numbered. Page numbers need to be located in the upper right corner of the thesis. The title’s first words should be in the right corner of every page, except for pages with figures and artwork.

Located at the top of every page is the running head. The running head should be 50 characters and in all capital letters. Order your paper in this way: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Thesis (Research), References, and Appendices.

Your thesis’s title should be short, and not more than ten to twelve words. Center the title on the top of the page and put the title in sentence case. On the new line, center your first name, middle initial, and last name. If you have a suffix in your name (like Jr. or III), put a space between the last name and the suffix. The name of your college or university should be listed on a new line. List the city or state, if the place where you conducted research is not at a college or a university. If you are located outside

the United States, list the city, state or province, and the country.

The abstract is a clear, short summary of your thesis. Starting at page two, the paragraph should be at most 120 words. In this section, the most important details of

your paper should be highlighted. Abbreviations and special terms (except units

of measurement) should be labeled in this section. If you have previous research

on your topic, it needs to be cited here.

Listed on the third page is the introduction. You put the background information and purpose of your thesis, present your problem, explain why the problem is important, and identify works which are applicable to the paper. You also put your hypothesis and your variables in this section as well.

In the research portion, which is the bulk of your paper, first begin with a paragraph which contains your thesis statement. Your thesis statement can be one of three methods: analytical, expository, and argumentative. First, an analytical thesis paper goes step by step in evaluating an idea or a topic to an audience. Second, an expository, discusses a topic to the audience. Third, an argumentative paper gives a claim about a topic and provides evidence proving that the viewpoint is convincing and true. The thesis statement should be located at the end of the first paragraph.

As you write your thesis, introduce the paragraphs through topic sentence. Sentences in the paragraph need to be evidence to help support the viewpoint of the topic sentence. This is where you integrate your material from your research into your paper. You make an internal citation by using (Author, page number) of the source that you are referencing.

In your conclusion, you can state that your thesis statement has been supported by presenting ample evidence. Remind the reader of the points that you have made in the thesis and ways that these points are connected.

For your reference page, you list the sources of your research paper. To properly cite your references, go to the Purdue OWL Writing Lab (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/).

The appendices provide information that would not be appropriate to include in the main body of your research paper. If you have appendices, name them with “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” et. cetera.

A thesis paper is an important research paper of your college career. Your grade should not suffer because your thesis is not written correctly in APA format.

 

22 November 2014 In Academic 0 comment

The APA (American Psychological Association) format is widely used in citations in the field of education, psychology, and in social sciences. Dissertations are found in the Masters and PhD levels. A dissertation is a document submitted for the purpose of a candidature to gain an academic degree. Specific guidelines have to be put into place in writing a dissertation. This guide will help you write your dissertation in APA format.

First, you have to research your information in your dissertation. Research findings that relate to your subject. Or, conduct experiments in order to gather information. Write down this information in notes. Organize data into tables, charts, and graphs. If you are copying down information on note cards be sure to paraphrase, so that you won’t be accused of plagiarizing. Be sure to reference the source material on your notes for the text that you are copying.

When you are finished with researching material for your dissertation, begin writing your first rough draft. You should use 8.5” by 11” paper with 1” margins on all sides for your dissertation. Double space the paper on each line. Fonts you should use are 12-point Times New Roman or Courier (serif typeface). Figure labels need to use 12-point Arial, Helvetica, or any sans serif typeface.

APA Dissertation Proposal Writing

Beginning with the title page, each page needs to be numbered. Pages with figures or artwork are not numbered. Your page numbers need to be located in the upper right corner. The first words of the title should be in the right corner of every page, except for pages with figures and artwork. Next, the running head is the shortened title which should be at the top of every page.  The running head should be 50 characters and in all capital letters. The running head should be located on the upper of the title page. You should order your dissertation in this way: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion, References, and Appendices.

Your dissertation’s title needs to be ten to twelve words, short and concise. The title needs to be centered on the top of the page and in sentence case. On a new line, include your first name, middle initial, and last name. If you have a suffix in your name (like Jr. or III), put a space between the last name and the suffix. Next on a new line, put your college or university. If the place where you conducted research is not located at a college or a university, list the city and state. If your location is outside the United States, list the city, state or province, and the country.

Know Hot to Write Dissertation Proposal

The abstract is a clear, short summary of your dissertation. The abstract should be no more than 120 words. In the abstract, the most important details of your paper should be highlighted. Abbreviations and special terms (except units of measurement) should be labeled in this section. Cite previous research on your topic in this section.

The introduction is the dissertation’s third page. You place the background information and purpose of your dissertation, present your problem, explain why the problem is important, and identify works which are applicable to the paper. You also put your hypothesis and your variables in this section as well.

In the method section, mention information so that the reader can repeat your experiment, if you have one. Separate the section into three categories: participants, materials, and procedures. In the participants section, tell about how you selected the participants, the number of the participants you selected, and the number of participants in each sample. In the materials section, tell about the tools that you used. For the procedure, make sure that you have an outline of your research paper.

The results section gives a synopsis of the statistics and data you incorporated into your paper. You can place the tables and data in this section.

For your discussion page, start with a statement which contradicts or supports your original hypothesis. If others have done similar research, compare and contrast their research with yours. And, make a statement on your conclusions.

Your references page is where you list the sources of your research paper. To properly cite your references, go to the Purdue OWL Writing Lab (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/).

Finally, the appendices detail the information which would not be proper to incorporate into the main body of your research paper. If you have appendices, name them with “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” et. cetera.

The final order of the dissertation may vary due to the institution’s or graduate advisor’s instructions. However, this guide will help you write a dissertation in APA format.

Words: 767

22 November 2014 In Academic 0 comment

For your final research paper in your high school history class, you are designated to research Queen Elizabeth. Your teacher wants the class to do the paper in APA (American Psychological Association) format. This is your first time interacting with APA style. You are frantically searching online for help with formatting on APA paper, and encountered this article. This article will guide you step-by-step how to write a research paper in APA format.

When you check out your books and search through the material, make copies of important pages or write down the important information on note cards. Paraphrase sentences and paragraphs if you are copying information from the sources. This is so that you will not be accused of plagiarism. In addition, write down the material source for your reference page which will be at the end of your report.

After you are finished reading your sources for your research paper, begin writing your first rough draft. You need to use 8.5” by 11” paper with 1” margins on all sides. Double space the paper and type with 12-point serif typeface (Times New Roman or Courier). If you have figures, label them with 12-point sans serif typeface (Arial or Helvetica).

Beginning with the title page, every page should be numbered on the upper right corner. The only pages that should not be numbered are those with figures and artwork. The running head should be fifty characters in all capital letters on the upper left corner on the title page. Order your paper in this manner: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Research, and References.

Your research paper’s title should be short and not go over twelve words. The title should be centered on the top of the page. Type the title in sentence case. Enter a new line on the page. Type your first name, middle initial, and last name. If you are named “Jr.” or “III,” put a space between the last name and the suffix. For the next new line, type your college or university’s name where you conducted research. If you don’t have a research institution, you can list the city and state where you researched the material. If you are conducting research outside of the United States, list your city, province, and the country.

An abstract is the summary of your research paper, located on page two. The paragraph should be 120 words. Highlight the most important details of your paper. Label abbreviations and special terms (except units of measurement) in this section. Previous research needs to be cited in this section.

The introduction consists of the third page. You place the purpose of your research paper, background information, present your problem, give details as to why the problem is important, identify why the problem is important, and identify works which are applicable to the paper. Place your hypothesis and your variables in the introduction section.

For the research section, put the running header on the left side of the page. Center the title, which should be in sentence case. Describe your research, what you have found, and your conclusions.

Lastly, list the sources of your research paper on the references page. A guide in how to properly cite your references is located at the Purdue OWL Writing Lab (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/).

A research paper is important to communicate your work and your findings. With this guide, you can format your paper in a clear way.

 

04 September 2014 In Resources 0 comment
Disadvantages of Torture - 4.3 out of 5 based on 4 reviews

 


Torture has been a topic of immense contention within and without the boundaries of America since its inception in the American law. It has more often been used in the extraction of information from those who are believed to be hardcore and extremely reserved. The proponents of torture as a practice base their defense mainly on the fact that torture is justified as long as it is used to save lives of many innocent citizens and that the end justifies the means. Is this or any other justification for torture right and sensible? The author of this paper argues that irrespective of the condition and circumstances surrounding its application, torture is immoral, inhuman and not justified as a means of extraction of information or any other application.

First, the information extracted from a person through torture is unreliable and worthless (Fritz, 2003). This is because, during torture the victim’s first interest is to do everything it takes to stop pain including but not limited to lying. If, therefore, he/she feels that the information needed is so personal and not releasable, they lie just to derail the feeling of pain (Gray and Wegner, 2010). At the end of the process the torturer gets the information he wanted but not the absolute truth. Moreover, some of the victims of torture are terrorists who have taken oaths against revealing any information about their operation in life or in death (Basoglu, 2009). Torture will obviously fail to bear fruits in such a case as this. Instead of giving information that result in finding of solutions to problems at hand, torture, thus, results in the provision of misleading information derailing solution finding.

Torture affects even the innocent (Michael, 2005). Since the information is only for evasion of pain, an innocent victim can be unfairly convicted leaving the real criminals free and continuing with their operations without interference (Gray and Wegner, 2010). This is detrimental in two main ways; one, it results in promotion of crime since the criminals feel smart and unreachable. They continue with their operations with the notion that there will be an innocent citizen who will suffer the pain for them. Secondly, it creates fear among innocent citizens who might even be having information about some criminal activity. Instead of achieving security and availing information, torture creates a barrier to access to vital information.

Torture is both dehumanizing and degrading (Jeremy, 2005). It is an archaic and barbaric practice that lacks place in the civilized world for it directly infringes against the human rights of the victim (Gray and Wegner, 2010). Most of the practices of torture are sources of pain which none ought to be exposed to, irrespective of the weight of their crime. It is also inhuman because it not only causes immense pain but also results in restricted independence and freedom of the victim (Tarrant et al., 2012). The victim is rendered defenseless and unproductive as long as the pain endures. The self esteem of the tortured is always demeaned as he/she is turned into a gross criminal even if they are genuinely innocent. In some extreme cases, torture results in death. In fact the death caused by torture should be treated even more seriously than murder because in addition to death, it inflicts pain on the defenseless victim before killing him/her (Tarrant et al., 2012). In fact, torture in itself is practically synonymous to death for at the time of torture the victim’s life is consumed by the extreme pain. Moreover, the victims often suffer both psychological and physical problems resulting in poor health for the victim due to the pains caused, injuries and shame that the victim is compelled to undergo. It would thus be more humane that when an individual refuses to provide the information that they ought to provide, then they should be jailed and kept in custody until they reveal the information. There are also other means of extraction of information that could be more humane than this practice.

Torture is illegal and breaches the constitution of America and the international law (Michael, 2005). It shares a common ground with wars of aggression, genocide and slavery in that they are both jus cogens, a Latin phrase meaning “compelling law.” It thus insinuates that no country can ever permit torture because the prohibitions of jus cogen always present a criminal liability for violation. In the United States, torture has always been prohibited by law. In fact, there are three ratified treaties prohibiting torture, inhuman, degrading or cruel punishments and treatments (Gray and Wegner, 2010). Ratification of a treaty promotes the treaty to being a supreme law in the US, reference to the constitution’s supremacy clause. The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Punishments and Treatments articulates it in a precise but clear way, "No exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency, may be invoked as a justification for torture." (Gray and Wegner, 2010). The torture statute also gives a lifelong imprisonment or death as a penalty in case of the death of a victim in the attempt or commission of torture without the US borders (Fritz, 2003). These examples and many others more succinctly deduce that the practice of torture can never be justified by law but reason. From this point of view it would make sense to stick to the law other than reason for the law was written for the good of citizens.

Torture strengthens opposition and terrorism (Basoglu, 2009). One of the many reasons for torture is to instill fear among the members of an outlawed group either of terrorism or other public crimes. In most cases the result of such tortures is exactly an opposite of the expectation and motive. The group often stands stronger and plan revenge strategies resulting to more lives than would have been lost were there no torture (Fritz, 2003). The torture of their members becomes an easy way to justify their action against the torturing power and a tool that helps them in recruiting members into their systems. The group also gets to enjoy the support resulting out of the public sympathy. This sympathy gives them a moral support that strengthens the criminal group in question (Basoglu, 2009). The increased opposition and heightened quest by the sects to revenge to the authorities undermines the internal security of a nation as well as its political stability. This has an implication that extends to a reduced economic growth due to the fear by external investors to be party to the country.

Torture results in mental health problems (Campbell, 2007). Research has associated torture to Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other disabilities and symptoms. From both the controlled and the uncontrolled research, it has been established that torture has a vital and long term psychological effects on some individuals (Basoglu, 2009). From systematic evaluations of survivors of torture, it was found that they suffer three main psychological problems from torture including: (a) psychological symptoms (irritability, depression, aggressiveness, anxiety, social withdrawal and emotional labilty); (b) cognitive symptoms (impaired concentration and memory and disorientation); and (c) Neurovegatative symptoms (sexual dysfunction, insomnia and nightmares) (Campbell, 2007). The consequences of torture may also extend throughout a survivor’s life influencing his or her familial, economic and psychological functions (Basoglu, 2009). From this it can be deduced that as much one may not have physically died from torture, it can reduce a victim to uselessness and thus practical death.

From the arguments advanced herein, it thus suffices to conclude that torture is never justified whatever the reason for its use. From the legal point of view of all laws – international and federal – torture is prohibited and therefore using it shall breach the law. From the ethical and moral point of view, torture is practically synonymous to death. From the human rights viewpoint, it is inhuman and degrading and finally from the medical perspective torture is associated to poor mental health and complications. Those who find their justification from securing and saving of lives would also learn from this paper that torture reduces security and beefs opposition. It would thus be right if the use torture is stopped and other more diplomatic means of extracting information and punishing are embraced.

List of References

Basoglu, M. 2009. A multivariate contextual analysis of torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatments: Implications for an evidence based definition of torture. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79,135-145.

Campbell, T.A. 2007. Psychological assessment, Diagnosis and treatment of torture survivors: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 628-641.

 Fritz, A. 2003. Terrorism and Torture.  International Journal of Applied Philosophy. 17 (1), 105–118.

Gray K. and Wegner D. M. 2010. Torture and judgments of guilt. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46 (1), 233-235.

Jeremy, W. 2005. Torture and Positive Law: Jurisprudence for the White House. Columbia Law Review, 105 (6), 1681–1750.

Michael, D. 2005. The Moral Justification of Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment. International Journal of Applied Philosophy, 19 (2), 161–178.

Tarrant, M., Nyla, R. B., Warner, R. H., and Dale W. 2012. Social identity and perceptions of torture: It's moral when we do it. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48 (2), 513-518.

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