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19 July 2015 In Blogs 0 comment

The term zero tolerance has been interpreted differently, by many people in America as well as the whole globe at large. The term has also been used widely by individuals including politicians, activists, religious leaders, as well as spokesmen and women in public debates and other forums. In the production field, zero tolerance of defects is referred to as a quality reassurance aim while in dealing with prohibited drugs; zero tolerance is referred to as a clear statement of intent. Some of the citizens in America claim that the zero tolerance was policing a responsible for the decline of criminal activities in the United States of America. Nevertheless, such a declaration is one-dimensional in the extreme as crime prevention and reduction in the United States of America involves many interconnecting and relating strategies. This research paper aims at providing the general acceptable definition of zero tolerance policing as well as the going to the extent of describing the policy, and explaining its significance in the dominion of law enforcement, its implications as well as areas where the policy is applicable.

There will also be a critical review on the effectiveness of zero tolerance policing which will be made possible through the use of literature as a guide and available research. In criminal justice within the field of policing, evidence-based practices have acquired force as agencies and policies have shifted their attention towards operating under the guidance of what works. Given the importance and weight carried by the works movement, I will discuss and examine techniques of such a movement as well as their drawbacks. The paper shall conclude by summarizing the clear definition of zero tolerance policing as well as a recommendation whether the policy should continue being used, revised, or abolished after a thorough understanding of the evidence.

Definition and background of zero tolerance
Zero tolerance as a policy is not easily defined. The plan involves imposing immediate punishment for contraventions of a stated rule. The policy aims at eradicating any undesirable conduct in the society. Zero tolerance policies forbid persons in any position of authority from practicing discretion or changing punishments to fit the circumstances subjectively. The policy states that that any people regardless of their status are required to impose a pre-determined punishment regardless of individual blameworthiness. In the recent times, the term has been used to refer to a certain number of concepts. The term was first used in North America in connection with drug fight. Later the policy was used in specific campaign where there was fight against women violation.

Zero tolerance policing is associated many aspects that include being tough on crime. This implies that all laws will be enforced and that the offenders will be apprehended and will not get away with the crime. In case the offender is found guilty, he or she will face harsh punishment. The policy is also used to refer to the practice of strict, non-discretionary law enforcement. This is illustrated by the approach of drink drive that was initiated in South Australia. In this policy, the policy is involved where they are actively involved in highways detecting drivers who are drunk. The activity is facilitated by the use of an extensive random breath testing operations. In case a person is found with illegal alcohol level, he or she is charged with that offense. Also, the drink drivers receive relatively harsh penalties that include license disqualifications, a jail term, or a fine. However, the primary practice of this law is the police action against minor offenses and disorders. Under this policy, are not expected to ignore minor crime and disorders.
importance and implications of zero tolerance policing

Police will not ignore minor crime and unruly behavior but will specifically pay attention to the so-called quality of life crimes such as public drinking, graffiti, vagrancy, vandalism, and public urinating. Paying attention to these crimes is related to the broken windows theory of crime. The word broken window is used as a metaphor to describe the impact of ignored disorderly behavior and minor offenses in the society. Kelling and Wilson claimed that if a broken window in a building is not repaired and monitored, then the sense that nobody checks the windows will result in the breaking of the other windows. The theory is applicable in crime in such a way that if minor criminal acts are ignored, it creates a platform and an atmosphere of lawlessness, and social decay takes root in the community. This in turn leads to the development serious crimes as criminals believe that they will go untamed.

This theory led to strict enforcement of petty crime and remediation of the physical decay that in turn would cut out the growth of a conducive environment for solemn criminal activities. The theory led to significant changes in policing in many jurisdictions in the United States of America, North of America, and the United Kingdom. In New York City in America, there was a significant decline in criminal activities after the policy was put in place and conducted efficiently. The policy was made effective in the 1990s where the police adopted a geographically and temporally selective policy of responding to criminal charges. This included even the most minor criminal offenses. After a thorough investigation, it becomes evident that many of the minor crime offenders had a history of more severe and dangerous criminal activities. Arresting the minor crime offenders prevented them from further practicing their illegal activities. It also posted warning to those minor crime offenders who were still practicing the act without the police being aware to quit as they will soon be caught, and a heavy punishment awaits them. Additionally, the risk of being arrested for minor offenses discouraged the carrying of firearms hence resulting to the reduction of both robbery rates as well as homicide cases. The theory led to a decline in criminal activities level in North America as a well as in the United States of America.

Zero tolerance policy was evident in New York City and led to the decline in criminal activities. This happened when Bratton was elevated to become the police commissioner of New York City. The commissioner described the city as a city that had stopped caring for its self. This was because of the high rate of criminal activities that were being conducted in the city, its state of lawlessness, as well as the level of insecurity. To put stop to all those activities, he initiated a strategic re-engineering which demoralized the New York City police department using the crime control plans which focused on youth crime, guns, drugs, corruption, auto theft, quality of life crimes, traffic, and domestic violence. The commissioner also involved detectives in his plans and used timely, intelligent, and accurate data.

Technology was the key resource as it was used to identify places and people who were at risk instead of reacting to individual incidents as they occur. In addition to the use of the strategies, the police executive departments meet frequently to discuss their progress as well as the way forward. The meeting stressed on the use of intelligence data when crime mapping. The commissioner also made sure that all the staff in the police department was trustworthy. This was evident as street officers were given the authority to make any drug arrest while the detectives were given the right to use some computer systems. In the previous era to give a detective an access to some computer systems was viewed as a risk of corruption. Not only did it enhance trust in the department but also fought against corruption. Furthermore, the officers were instructed to place emphasis on the quality of life crimes as well as serious offenses.

This was aimed at reducing behaviors such as public drinking, graffiti, over speeding and littering. The policy also includes the arrest of persons suspected to be involved in more serious criminal activities which is known as misdemeanors arrests. For example, young people who were alleged to be involved in criminal or gang activities were detained for committing minor crimes such as driving without license or loitering and later while in the police custody investigated. Also searching was conducted to anyone arrested on the basis of a minor crime. Also stop and frisk policy was widely used against anyone suspected of carrying drugs or armaments.

The experience from the New York City Department was an example of zero tolerance policing as it included being tough on crime, and using the nondiscriminatory policing on the minor offenses. However, activities such as working with the trust, and intelligence also contributed to the decline of crime in the city. Also restructuring the police department played a vital role. Most analyst states that there was the reduction of homicide activities from 74% to 50% while violent crime reduced to 30%. In total, the overall crime in the city reduced from 80% to 47% that was a significant drop. Moreover, there was a decline the quality of life crimes. This was evident because motor crime decreased by 42% while burglaries and robberies reduced by 32%. The change in the policing system which led to the inclusion of stops and frisk policy resulted in the reduction of the number of the young people carrying guns in the city. After comparing the crime levels in the previous years when Bratton was not the commissioner and had not initiated the zero tolerance policing which was before 1990s while the following years after implementation of the policy, it proved that the policy contributed to decline in criminal activities in the New York City.

Below are graphs that show how the crime level decreased by comparing the criminal activities in the previous years before the In diagram 2, where the other cities applied other methods excluding the zero tolerance policing, there was a significant decline of homicide activities, violent activities, as well as quality of life crime from the year 1970s to 2000s were the was a major decline due to the introduction of technological ways of dealing with criminal activities. In diagram 2 where the graph presents the use of zero tolerance policing with the combination of other methods of dealing with criminal activities, there was a radical decline in all of the criminal activities. There is a major decline from the year the 1990s since it was when the policy was put into practice by the new commissioner.

Implications of zero tolerance policing
The zero tolerance policing had its consequences in the New York City on the city resources. On the one hand, between the years 1995 to 2000 the total number of individual arrested in the city increased by 15% while the number of misdemeanor arrest risen by 30 %. This had its implications on the city’s court as its workload increased and correctional facilities. The policy consumed a lot of capital from the taxpayers as the number of police were increased so as to be in position to conduct the stop and frisk policy as well as to keep an eye on the minor criminal activities. There were also a lot of resources needed in the court of law to deal with the increased arrests.
There was growth in human population in the prisons, this in turn required a lot of resources to maintain them as well as increasing poverty in the communities as some families depended on them. The zero tolerance policing of minor offenses increased the number of offenders arrested. On the other hand, this policy led to reduced number of individual loitering on the streets as they feared being arrested which would cost them a fine. There was also a reduction of minor criminal activities that cut down the growth of serious and dangerous crime actions. This lead to improvement in the security of the city and hence people could conduct their business without fear. This led to the city to grow economically. The city also thrived socially as people could interact without fear due to the decline in the crime levels.

Areas of application
The policy is relevant in many facets of life. The system is applicable in the workplace and hence it is referred to as zero tolerance policing and harassment and bullying in the workplace. Institution, companies as well as organizations have adopted the policy to prevent some of the undesirable behavior like harassment. When individuals in an organization are punished or fined for minor crimes, uprooting of significant and severe crimes is rare to occur as they fear the kind of punishment that would befall the individual hence abiding within the rules and regulations of the group.

In the fight against drugs in a nation, zero tolerance policing also proves to be useful. In the United States of America, the policy was used to fight against drugs. The system was first designed in the era of Ronald Reagan as part of the war on drugs. The policy was designed in such a manner that it was to target the drug users rather than the suppliers and transporters. The laws demanded that any individual found with any illegal drug was to suffer a harsh sentence. The inclusion of a harsh sentence and strict enforcement of personal use would reduce the demand of the drugs and hence strike at the root cause of the drug saga. On the general view of zero tolerance policy on drugs, the policy advocates aim at ridding the society of all illicit drug use. The policy concentrates first in eliminating the minor group in the drug industry who are the users and then proceeding to the transporters followed by the suppliers. The policy is also used in learning institutions where. The policy is adopted as it aims at putting to an end of any gang activities, drug use, and violence in the institutions.

Evidence-based practices
Evidence-based practice a concept that is mainly used in the department of criminology simply means applying methods that have proven to be working over some years. The practice is commonly known as what works movement that includes various assessment techniques in identifying criminal activities in society. Single study view method, one of the techniques in the movement encompasses a single assessment. The technique is of high quality in terms of methodology. This type of appraisal process is regarded as self-explanatory but when compared with other methods it is low in terms of reliability. Its major drawback is that the method that it overgeneralizes issues as it is a single study research. Narrative review method another technique in the movement and is involved in crime investigations is often comprehensive is assessment and summarizes conclusions draw from various researchers. The only limitation of the technique is that the research is regarded as bias. Additionally, there is also the systematic review and the vote count techniques also used in the criminal justice. The evidence-based techniques act in opposition of the zero tolerance policing as the techniques require time to gather information before arresting any suspected individual either on a major or a minor crime.

Zero tolerance policing can be defined in different ways but have the same meaning and implications in the society. The most recognized description states that the policy involves strict, not –discriminatory enforcement of laws in regardless of the circumstance, position or the level of crime. The policy aims at eliminating the minor crimes that can act as the background for the growth of serious criminal activities. Supporters of the policy claim that it reduces both the major and the minor crimes hence doing away with insecurity and criminal activities in society. Although the policy has its drawbacks in the society as it increase the workload of judges as they have to deal even with the minor crimes, police resources, and prison facilities. The policy also affects the level of trust for the community and the people in charge of the law enforcement, the end of the policy justifies its existence and its importance in the fight against criminal activities as it helps in reduction of the quality of life crimes, homicide activities, as well as violent criminal acts. The policy helps in bringing up a society that is upright, peaceful and secure and hence it is highly recommendable to use the zero tolerance policing.

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16 June 2015 In Blogs 0 comment
Case Summary
Kenya's banking industry is growing and expanding every day with the entry of new firms. Currently, the industry has more than 43 license commercial and a good number of SACCO that re offering banking services. This number of banks indicates clearly the intense competition that is in Kenya's banking industry. This competition calls for firms within the industry to ensure they position themselves competitively.
To meet customer expectations, the banks need to have permanent and stable employees who have a deep understanding of what the customers they serve needs. However, there is the high rate of employee turnover in some banks that may see some of these banks struggle to keep up with the competition. This case study, therefore, seeks to address this problem by examining what a top bank in Kenya is doing to ensure a longer stay of employees so that other banks can benchmark from them. 
Relevance of the case
The case is relevant in that at it can help banks that are struggling with a problem of high rate of employees' turnover solve this problem. Moreover, the case can be used by human resource managers in enhancing motivational factors within their organization.  
Profile of Standard Chartered Bank of Kenya
Below are some of the facts about the bank:
  • The bank is foreign owned with only 26% local shareholding
  • The bank has been in existence in Kenya for more than 100 years having been established in 1911
  • It has 33 branches countrywide, has 1693 employees, and it is the fourth largest bank in terms of market share as indicated by Business Daily Africa
The bank has also received the following recognitions:
  1. - It was the first bank to receive ISO 9008 certification in Kenya
  2. - Best Bank, Customer Satisfaction, Think Business Awards- 2015
  3. - ICPSK Champions of Governance Award -2014
  4. - Best Foreign Bank in Kenya-EMEA Awards- 2014
  5. - Best Consumer Internet Bank in Kenya-Global Finance Magazine -2013
  6. - Best Foreign Exchange Bank in Kenya-2013
Overall Winner Corporate Governance Excellence in Financial Reporting Awards 2013
Indeed, such kind of achievement cannot be attained without well motivated, committed, and dedicated workforce. Also, this kind of outstanding performance cannot be realized if employees get employed and leave within the shortest time possible.
Organization Behavior Questions and Practices Addressed by the Case
  • Factors that motivate workers at the bank
  • The type of leadership available in the bank, supervisor's behavior towards employees and the effect the latter has on employee motivation
  • How effective is communication in the bank and if communication has any impact on employee motivation
Methods of Data Collection
Data was gathered from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data was obtained through the administration of questionnaires and direct interviews with some employees and interns of the firm. The sample chosen centered on junior and senior employees of the company. For secondary source, website was the only source that was used. 
Findings/Issues being discussed
Factors that motivate employees at the bank
Data collected indicated that various factors motivate employees in the bank. The factors are stated in the order of their importance, from the factors viewed as most important to the least ones.
  • Salary and other fringe benefits
  • Job security
  • Training and development opportunities
  • Respect and fair treatment received from superiors
  • Possibility of future  promotional opportunities
  • Relationship with co-workers and guidance from supervisors
  • Type of leadership present in the bank and supervisor's behavior
It emerged that in the bank, employees are given a chance to take part in decision-making on matters affecting them as well the fact that management takes time to listen to employees ideas. Employees are also given a chance to take part in assignments beyond the core of their which motivate them as this give them a chance to gain new skills. Employees also cited the presence of working environment full of trust and openness. However, employees noted that some supervisors use the authoritarian type of supervision. This kind of supervision according to employees, was the main demotivating factor. 
How management and supervisors communicate with employees
 Employees indicated that there existed efficient and effective communication from the management. This efficiency in communication enabled the employees understand the nature of their assignment. Well understood assignment made employees tackle their assignment in the right way, resulting in a positive feedback that is obviously a motivator. 
Lessons Learnt
Monetary benefits motivate most employees. This fact is clear since employees cited salary and other fringe benefits as their main motivating factor. This fact is in agreement with the theory of Scientific Management that noted that employees are economical beings who are motivated by money. Due to this tendency by employees to value money most, employers should consider using money related benefits as a motivating and retention factor of employees.  Besides, factors like job security, training and development opportunities, respect and fair treatment, and possibility of promotional opportunities indicate that Abraham Maslow's Theory of Hierarchy Needs applies in Kenya's labor market. Therefore, employers should not only cater for employees' monetary needs, but also self-esteem and self-actualization needs by providing opportunities for career growth within their organization.  
Management of these days should employ democratic leadership style since this type of style seems to attract the current generation of employees. Employees of this era do not stomach autocratic type of supervision, and if that is the case, they are ready to leave. Therefore, supervisors should create room for sharing responsibility with junior employees and refrain from being too much authoritative. 
Every organization should ensure there is efficient and effective communication in the organization. Effective communication is needed as it will ensure employees know what is expected of them and how best to execute the assigned task, something that motivate them
From the above findings, it is clear that employees motivation and better performance of banks is positively correlated. Therefore, banks and other financial institutions experiencing a high rate of labor turnover should strive to motivate their employees. The motivation of employees will require such banks to introduce competitive pay schemes as well as creating a working environment that support career growth. 
16 June 2015 In Blogs 0 comment
Marriage is a crucial institution whose importance cut across all races and religion. It is not only considered as an avenue of ensuring cohesiveness and growth of the society, but in religion circles, it is viewed as a divine institution that was ordained by God. In the recent past, however, there has emerged calls from various people advocating for recognition of same-sex marriages. The appeal for acceptance of gay marriages is being made in the oblivion of the threat it poses to the society. Same gender marriages lack legitimacy since such marriages lack any religious foundation. They are also out to weaken the meaning and respect of the institution of marriage as well as resulting in a generation of children with confused understanding of gender-based roles.  
Firstly, same-sex marriage is not recognized by any religion on the planet or any culture. All religions view same-sex marriage as obscene since it is against the will of God. Gay marriages are unnatural acts that even animals are not known to do them. Allowing gay marriages will amount to an overturn of the principles of law where a moral wrong turns to a civil right. In the contrast, advocates of same-sex marriages argue that most religions are lessening their previously firm stand against same-sex marriages. Presently, these unions are seen as a lifestyle. Also, denying the same-gender couple right to marry has no legal backing. Discrimination of same-sex couples denies them their freedom of worship which is explicitly provided for by the law.  
Secondly, recognition of gay marriages will weaken the meaning and respect of the institution of marriage. If same-sex couples are accorded same privileges like medical decision-making capacity and joint ownership of property, marriage will start to lose its meaning. Marriage aim is not only meant to cater for emotional needs of the partners. The purpose of marriage extends to providing a serene environment for the growth of children by ensuring children grow under the care of a father and a mother. With gay marriages, such purpose will be lost. Conversely, supporters of gay marriages propose that all benefits enjoyed by legitimate couples should extend to the same-sex couple. Marriage is meant to cater for the emotional welfare of the couples and is not driven by children. Moreover, it is a personal decision, and one's decision should not be challenged because they deviate from what majority believe.
Finally, condoning same-sex marriage will breed a generation of children who do not clearly understand gender roles in the society. Children are supposed to learn gender roles from the society. A male child learns from his father that a father is supposed to protect the family.  A girl child learns by what a mother does by observing what her mother does. With same-sex marriage, this is not possible and the children they bring up will be confusing these roles. In the contrast, same-sex marriage advocates suggest that marriage is a personal commitment that societal expectations should not put heavy expectations on it. They feel that what society wants should not dictate what a person decides to do or not.
Based on the religious view, the purpose of marriage, and desire to bring up children who understand gender-based roles, gay marriages should not be allowed. If the entire purpose of marriage is to be retained, it is apparent that same-sex marriages need not to be there. It is a type of marriage that aims at addressing personal desires with no regard for the effects it will have on the future generation. 
13 June 2015 In Blogs 0 comment
American Individualism was founded on several elements: One element that has to do with American Individualism is composed of two separate perspectives: America as a “unique” culture in itself and Americans as people who are “Independent Individuals.” A second element could be the idea of Independent Individualism, which has to do with individuals and not society as a whole; A third element may include the Protestant Ethic, which was established by John 
Calvin, Martin Luther and practiced by the Pilgrims who arrived in the New World seeking religious freedom; Transcendentalism, a philosophical movement established in the 1830s and 1840s in New England; The concept of the American Dream is a fifth element; America 
founding a democracy, unlike most European nations, including that of England; A seventhelement may be the idea of capitalism and a free-market society; Another element that could be considered a special quality of American Individualism is the role robber barons in the United States; American Individualism is also defined and confirmed with studies by Geert Hofstede, who is a well-known Dutch professor; Individualistic vs. collectivist nations; Another element is the role of immigrants in America and how they identify themselves and how they are identified by Americans; Another element would be the comparison of the U.S. and England; A thirteenth element would be the logic behind the Declaration of Independence; States’ Rightswould be another one; Another element would be freedom of speech.
American Individualism can be defined in two different perspectives:
  1. America as a “unique” culture in itself
  2. Americans as people who are “Independent Individuals”
The first perspective looks at American Individualism with respect to the United States of America and the qualities that make it “unique.” In other words, American culture has several key elements that make it distinct. These elements include Protestantism, Transcendentalism, 
democracy, Robber Barons, capitalism and Independent Individualism among others. Many would agree that no other nation on Earth has the “unique” combination of attributes that make 
America its own distinct culture.
The second perspective looks at American Individualism with respect to the individual people living in America. America, as most would probably agree is made up of many different kinds of people. With America being as multi-cultural and progressive as it is, more and more people are wanting to be less like their traditional family genre and more like their own kind of person. This can be seen with evidence in America’s pop culture. Higher divorce rates indicate that less people are getting married and staying married and more people are staying single longer. According to Stuart Mitchell (2011), “The total number of divorces that occurred in 2010 came to 119,589 representing a 4.9% increase on 2009’s 113,949 divorces” (2010 Divorce Rates and Trends, para. 2). People of different ethnic backgrounds and religious affiliations have a greater tolerance for others who are not like them than they used to. There are many other factors that suggest an increase in Americans becoming Independent Individuals. The American 
Psychological Association (2012) defines both Independent1
Independent Individualism3
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